Here you can find scientific references related to chronic fatigue. 

  1. Afari N, Buchwald D. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a review. American Journal of Psychiatry, Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:221–236.

  2. Andreasen et al. The effect of exercise therapy on fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal , 17(9);1041–1054.

  3. Hill et al. Perfectionism and Athlete Burnout in Junior Elite Athletes: The Mediating Role of Motivation Regulations. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology 2012:6:129-145.

  4. Betoret. Stressors, Self-Efficacy, Coping Resources, and Burnout among Secondary School Teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology 200;26(4):519–539.

  5. Braley et al. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanisms, Evaluation, and Treatment. SLEEP, 2010;33(8):1061–1067.

  6. Butler D, and Moseley L. Explain pain. Second Edition. Noigroup Publications for NOI Australia, Pty Ltd. 2013.

  7. Carruthers et al. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. J Intern Med 2011;270:327–338.

  8. Clayton et al. Beyond Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Redefining and illness. JAMA 2015;313(11):1101-1102.

  9. Connolly  et al. Managing fatigue in patients with chronic conditions in primary care. Family Practice, 2013;30:123–124.

  10. Courneya et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Lymphoma Patients. J Clinical Oncology;2009:27(27): 4605-1.

  11. Department of Health. The expert patient: a new approach to chronic disease management for the 21st Century. 2001.

  12. Derman et al. The ‘worn-out athlete’: A clinical approach to chronic fatigue in athletes, Journal of Sports Sciences 1997;15:3, 341-351.

  13. Fukuda et al, and the International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comprehensive Approach to Its Definition and Study. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:953-959.

  14. Glader et al. Poststroke Fatigue A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of Stroke Patients in Sweden. Stroke, 2002;33:1327-1333.

  15. Griffiths C, Foster G, Ramsay J, Eldridge S, Taylor S. How effective are expert patient (lay led) education programmes for chronic disease? BMJ 2007;334(7606):1254-1256.

  16. Gustafsson et al. A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2008;9:800–816.

  17. Hardy P. The Expert Patient Programme: a critical review. Programme Evaluation, Quality Assessment and Learning Processes 2004.

  18. Heine et al. Exercise therapy for fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD009956.

  19. Hewlett et al. Patients' perceptions of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: overwhelming, uncontrollable, ignored. Arthritis Rheum, 2005;53(5):697-702.

  20. Howes et al. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). Criteria and clinical guidelines 2014.


  22. Huarng. Burnout Syndrome among Information System Professionals, Information Systems Management 2001;18(2):15-20.

  23. Humphrey et al. Fatigue in fibromyalgia: a conceptual model informed by patient interviews. Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2010;11:216.

  24. Jason et al. The Development of a Revised Canadian Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Case Definition. Am J of Biochem and Biotech 2010;6 (2):120-135.

  25. Johnston et al. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis. Clinical Epidemiology 2013;5:105–110.

  26. Kurlansik and Ibay. Seasonal Affective Disorder. Am Fam Physician 2012;86(11):1037-1041. 

  27. Leegard. Diffuse cerebral symtoms in convalescents from cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction. Acta Neurol Scand, 1983;67:348–355.

  28. Leeuw M, Goossens M, SJ Linton S et al. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2007;30(1): 77-94.

  29. Mackinnon. Overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes. Immunology and Cell Biology 2000;78:502–509.

  30. May et al. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors: A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training. Acta Oncologica, 2008;47(5):825-834.

  31.  Mead et al. Fatigue after Stroke: Baseline Predictors and Influence on Survival. Analysis of Data from UK Patients Recruited in the International Stroke Trial. PLoS ONE, 6(3):e16988.

  32. Melzack R. Pain and the neuromatrix in the brain. J Dent Educ 2001;65(12):1378-1382.

  33. Melzack R. From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain 1999;Suppl 6:S121-6.

  34. Melzack R. Gate Control Theory. On the Evolution of Pain Concepts. Pain Forum 1996;5(1):128-138.

  35. Melzack R, Wall PD. Pain Mechanisms: A new theory. Science, New Series 1965;15(3699):971-979.

  36. Meeus M, Nijs J, Van Mol E, Truijen S, De Meirleir K. Psychological determinants of chronic musculoskeletal pain and daily functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 2012; 31:921-929.

  37. Meeus M, Nijs J, Huybrechts S, Truijen S. Evidence for generalized hyperalgesia in chronic fatigue syndrome: A case control study. Clin Rheumatol 2010; 29:393-398.

  38. Meeus M, Nijs J, Van Oosterwijck J, et al. Pain physiology education improves pain beliefs in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome compared to pacing and self-management education: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 91:1153-1159.

  39. McCabe et al. (2015) Fatigue as a Driver of Overall Quality of Life in Cancer Patients. PLoS ONE 2015;10(6):e0130023.

  40. McCracken LM, Carson JW, Eccleston C, Keefe FJ. Acceptance and change in the context of chronic pain. Pain, 2004;4–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2004.02.006

  41. NICE, Clinical Guideline 53. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy). Diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in adults and children, 2007.

  42. Nijs J, Crombez G, Meeus M, et al. Pain in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Time for Specific Pain Treatment? Pain Physician 2012; 15:E677-E686.

  43. Orre et al. Chronic cancer-related fatigue in long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2008;64: 363–371.

  44. Pavlakis et al. Burnout syndrome in Cypriot physiotherapists: a national survey. BMC Health Services Research 2010;10:63.

  45. Ponchel et al. Factors Associated with Poststroke Fatigue: A Systematic Review. Stroke Research and Treatment, 2015;Article ID 347920.

  46. Poncet et al. Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Nursing Staff. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007;175:98–704.

  47. Price and Murphy. Staff burnout in the perspective of grief theory. Death Educ. 1984;8(1):47-58.

  48. Prue et al. Fatigue in Gynecological Cancer Patients During and After Anticancer Treatment. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2010; 39(2): 197-210.

  49. Ramirez et al. Mental health of hospital consultants: the effects of stress and satisfaction at work. Lancet 1996;16(347)(9003):724-8.

  50. Rohan et al. Biological and psychological mechanisms of seasonal affective disorder: a review and integration. Curr Psychiatry Rev. 2009;5(1):37-47.

  51. Rongen – van – Dartel et al. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis. Arthritis Care & Research, 2015;67(8):1054–1062.

  52. ​Sharpe et al. Rehabilitative treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome: A long-term follow-up from the PACE trial. Lancet, 2015;2(12):1067-74. 

  53. Sharpe et al. A report - chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research. J of the Royal Soc Medic 1991;84,118-122.

  54. Sprod et al. Three versus six months of exercise training in breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat (2010) 121:413–419.

  55. Terman et al. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Seasonal Affective Disorder: Comorbidity, Diagnostic Overlap, and Implications for Treatment. Am J Med. 1998;105(3A):115S–124S.

  56. Tyreman S. The expert patient: outline of UK government paper. Med Health Care Philos 2005;8(2):149-151.

  57. White P, Goldsmith K, Johnson A, et al. Comparison of adaptive pacing therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, graded exercise therapy, and specialist medical care for chronic fatigue syndrome (PACE): a randomised trial. Lancet 2011; 377: 823–36. 

  58. White et al. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or Εncephalopathy. BMC Neurology 2007, 7:6.

  59. Wilson PM, Kendall S, Brooks F. The Expert Patients Programme: a paradox of patient empowerment and medical dominance. Health Soc Care Community 2007;15(5):426-438.

  60. Zedlitz et al. Cognitive and Graded Activity Training Can Alleviate Persistent Fatigue After Stroke A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Stroke,2012;43:1046-1051.